Recently, the article on Boxers Braids in French Magazine, “Paulette” , had made react some readers, outraged that we can say that cornrows were created by boxers, simply hiding their African history. And what a surprise to see that among the photographs chosen to illustrate the subject, the edition only chose white models. As if cornrows were only acceptable on Caucasians … That was not the purpose of Paulette, one suspects, but some have read it as a contempt for cornrows worn by black women. Seeing cornrows in all the fashion magazines , usually worn most often by western models, means that this hairstyle has aesthetic value only on white women.
However, braiding hair is an integral part of African culture. An art handed down from generation to generation and is a mode of transmission.
In brief, a history is necessary to demonstrate the ancestral character of cornrows in African culture.
Cornrows, unlike braids, are a hairstyle in which hair are very close to the scalp, that can form a geometric design, like cross roads or paths formed in the grain fields ( this is where the American name cornrow originates from). It is often called “African braid.”
It differs from the “braid” which is formed by interlacing threestrands that are pending from the scalp. And it is indeed part of other hair cultures like the Vikings, Native Americans, and Chinese.
Cornrows seem to be the oldest hairstyle of humanity; Indeed, The Venus of Brassempouy and the Venus of Willendorf are two statuettes dating from approximately 22,000 years before J-C ; both represent a woman with braided hair. When we observe prehistoric art and in particular female statuettes called “Venus” dating from the Gravettian period (between 29,000 and 22,000 before present) and discoveries in Europe, we are struck by their similarities to Africa. If today most prehistorians have lined the side of the thesis of braided coarse hair, some continue to propagate this qualifier “lady in the hood” to name this portrait of gravettian era. All Venus with hair have coarse hair.
This type of braided hairstyle spread from the Nile Valley.
Nubians, Egyptians and the ancient Hebrews, first adoptanted hair styled with thin dreadlocks, while part of the black population prefers to shave the hair, including the Egyptian priests and women from Masai origin. Others used the hairstyle called “Afro” hairstyle or even the so-called “gradient” which recalls the Ramses helmet.
Subsequently, this type of hairstyle will spread throughout the rest of Black Africa. The braided hair showed the caste, different life events (wedding or death) or social rank.
- To the West, there were Fulani, Akan, Dogon, Mande, Yoruba, Wolof, Hausa
- In the Center was the Mangbetous, Fang, Bamileke, Bantu (from all Africa) etc.
- To the East, the Maasai to today.
The other historical traces, concern the first great African civilizations such as ancient Egypt where the hairstyle symbolized the social rank. Men and women wore different types of hair braids: cornrows or simple braids. They were often ornamented with gold thread and other refinements. At that time, hair was granted special care (scented oil, lotus flower). Thus the proto-dynastic king in TERA NETER Country Kemet (ancient Egypt) carries the hair arranged in braids. This type of braided hair is then observed in many castes of the Egyptian-Nubian population (scribes, pharaohs, craftsmen …). women.
There is an incredible variety of braids according to African countries: they may differ in size as these young women in Namibia.
Or these young girls from Congo Brazzaville in 1940:
Another hairstyle to remember; the hull as among women Mangbetu, Congo and Uganda where the skull is deformed to be elongated. Mangbetu wrap the baby’s head in the ropes before bone growth for a year, giving them a very elongated skull, a sign of beauty and intelligence. The origin of this practice dates back to ancient Egypt, as the famous Mangbetu harp, we also found among the Fang of Gabon, the Azande, cousins of Mangbetu.
The conical headgear Zulu women who also inspired the look of Lupita.
The relief braids, from Côte d’Ivoire
The combination hair braided with checked patterns and extended by braids as this young dancer of Brazzaville in 1940:
The braids using twisting hair process:
Note also the complexity of braids with often ornamentation that goes against the stereotype that African braids were only a practical pretext. There is an art of braiding in Africa.
Here are examples of very elaborates hairstyles like this Fulani girl in Sudan early century with shells and corals as an ornamental.
Or that girl from Senegal in 1884:
Among the girls of Guinea, the complexity of the hair beautifully contrasts with simple placing girls.
Also watch this young Moroccan girl in 1937:
Let us look now at how these affect African hairstyles today, including Caucasian female.
To see this hairstyle of a girl taken from Eritrea in the 30 ‘s…
… We see how Bo Derek did not invent these braids lying but was inspired by this kind of ancestral hair.
The bun of Sarah Michelle Gellar
Doesn’t remind you that Wolof girl of Senegal?
Let us add that the popularity of the braids do not date from today.
Example below with Marlene Deitrch and Elizabeth Taylor:
Cornrows were recently honored by the American artist Shani Crowe with “Braids” is a series of photographic portraits and videos highlighting the beautiful and profound dimension of hair braiding – a discipline that Shani Crowe considers a art in itself.
For her works, Shani Crowe draws braiding style of African American women of the 60s, as well as various existing braids on each region of the African continent. A way for the artist, to honor her cultural identity. A great initiative that we would like to see more often on afro-american celebrities or black models who prefers their weavie or relaxed hair. Note also the approach of Beyonce: She had opted for braids at the time of the first anniversary of her daughter Blue Ivy, for Thanksgiving in 2012 and also during his trip to Cuba with her husband Jay Z. In her latest video clip “Formation” and her performance of the Super Bowl 2016, Beyoncé claims loudly its African-American identity. The singer puts her words forward by posing on the cover of March issue of Garage Magazine, an English magazine dedicated to art, wearing braids recalling her debut in the Destiny’s Child.
Jada Pinkett-Smith, Ciara or Alicia Keys were also spotted with cornrows on red carpet but this remains exceptional.
Written by Isabelle Gazania-Haas from Fossette-Magazine
Translation by Doria-Adoukè